An ownership-based game theoretic model for a two-nation fishery in the presence of asymmetric bargaining
Rents generated from harvesting fisheries resources in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean are vital to the long-term socioeconomic well-being of certain groups of countries, such as the Pacific Island Countries (PICs). However, distant water fishing nations (DWFNs) contribute to the majority of catch in PIC waters. While the DWFNs pay an access fee, PICs feel underpaid. It was recommended that PICs domesticate their fisheries (specifically tuna) and engage in training programs to build their human capital. While PICs own the harvest rights, they do not necessarily possess the human or physical capital needed to fully domesticate the tuna industry. Further, the asymmetry in bargaining power over the expected gross revenues of DWFNs still remains, even with advances in domestication. In this talk, an ownership-based game theoretic model for two nations is presented to answer the question: What is the bargaining power of the PICs (Nation 1) when both the DWFNs (Nation 2) and the PICs make investments in their human capital? In this model, the owner is assumed to have full rights over the EEZ for sustainable harvests of fish. The model is applied to three periods; in the first period, an ownership structure is contemplated by the PICs and DWFNs. In the second period, both countries make non-contractible investments in their human capital and in the third period, a bargaining game ensues over who owns the fish in the EEZ. Results show that (i) joint ownership is not strictly optimal (ii) for equal bargaining powers, the country whose investment is more productive should be the owner, and (iii) for any advantages in catchabilities, DWFN ownership is optimal if its bargaining power is sufficiently small and PIC ownership is optimal if the DWFN’s bargaining power is sufficiently large.
4/10: Maria Kuruvilla (PhD candidate, QERM, UW)
Quantifying schooling behavior: Studying the effect of temperature and school size on the collective response of fish to a threat
A number of factors affect schooling in fish, which can have larger implications on the ecosystem. In this talk, I will describe the experiments we conducted to study the effect of water temperature and group size on how fish respond to a loom stimulus. I will describe the methods we used to quantify their behavior and preliminary results. Identifying the effect of water temperature on their ability to respond as a group to a threat can give us insight into how most fish, which are ectothermic, are vulnerable to fluctuations in external temperature. This can have an effect on predator–prey interactions if an endothermic predator can take advantage of fish in cold waters or if the fish can compensate by changing their behavior.
4/17: Saba Saberi (Master’s student, SEFS, UW)
Quantifying burn severity in coniferous forests of the interior Pacific Northwest
Accurate quantification of fire-caused changes to vegetation, or burn severity, is important—especially as the climate warms and associated changes to fire regimes unfold. Burn severity is commonly assessed in the field using semi-quantitative ordinal ocular estimates such as the Composite Burn Index (CBI), or spectral indices such as the relativized differenced normalized burn ratio (RdNBR). In addition, direct quantitative measures of burn severity can be measured, but they are rarely collected with CBI, and the relationship between the two measures is unknown. In this study, we recorded the CBI and eight individual quantitative field measures of burn severity 1-year post burn from 315 plots across 14 fires in the IPNW. Using zero or one inflated beta regression models and area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) for model comparison, we tested the relationship between CBI and individual field measures and between CBI and three satellite indices. We also tested for a difference in the relationships between these measures if the fire was a short interval reburn, and if the first fire was stand-replacing. We found both CBI and RdNBR represent canopy measures of burn well, but not surface measures. In addition, we found few differences in the relationships between CBI and RdNBR and individual canopy field measures if the fire was a short interval reburn, but some differences when individual field metrics measured surface burn severity.
4/24: Michelle T Scharer Umpierre (Researcher, Department of Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico)
Passive acoustic monitoring of fish spawning aggregations
Passive acoustic methods (PAM) are used to detect, monitor, and locate the presence of species that produce sounds by listening to the natural environment with microphones or, if underwater, hydrophones. This technology has been used in marine ecosystems to classify the source of underwater sounds since the 1950s and only recently have fisheries scientists and managers integrated this method used in marine biological studies. Most of the research to date using PAM has been of marine mammals; however, multiple species of marine fishes produce sounds for communication in various behavioral contexts, including when they are under threat, feeding, displaying agonistic behavior, and mating. Some of the benefits of PAM are that it can be used to locate species of fish that produce a recognizable acoustic signal, it is a non-invasive and non-destructive method to observe behaviors, it can be used remotely over long periods of time to reveal temporal patterns, it can be used in habitats deeper than conventional observation methods, and it can simultaneously monitor noise pollution. The combination of PAM with conventional techniques of sampling fisheries provides an advance to this research.
More information about the work Michelle will be sharing can be found at her consultancy’s website, HJRReefscaping, and via FACT.
5/1: Juan Morales (Professor, INIBIOMA-CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Argentina)
5/8: Kory Evans (Presidential Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Brown University)
Impact of development and ecology on the skull shape of Neotropical electric fishes
5/22: Emma Bouie (Graduate Student, North Carolina Central University)
Examining landslide susceptibility zonation using the Qualitative Map Combination method in Buncombe County, North Carolina
Landslides are geologic hazards that pose a great threat to infrastructure and human safety. Throughout western North Carolina, the aftermaths of debris flows resulted in approximately $1.3 billion in property damage in 2005. The North Carolina Geological Survey (NCGS) began a compilation of existing landslide information and mapping of landslide features using Geographic Information Systems in 2003. The purpose of this program was to use geospatial analysis to identify the spatial distribution of relative slope instability in order to educate and inform the general public about landslide susceptibility in the study area. Their program attempted to create county-scale slope movement hazard maps for 19 counties in western North Carolina. However, in 2011, the North Carolina General Assembly ceased funding for the North Carolina Geological Survey program due to the lack of available funds and anti-regulatory sentiment.
As a result, NCGS completed and published the results for only 4 of the 19 counties: Buncombe, Henderson, Macon, and Watagua. Buncombe County is an area with numerous landslides occurring per year, varying in levels of destruction. Buncombe county reported debris flow and similar types of landslides, making up nearly 77% of total landslides in the county. The county’s periodic debris flows and the potential risk of a landslide affecting the local university, with over 19,000 currently enrolled students, makes it a suitable study area to apply the Qualitative Map Combination (QMC) method.
The goal of this study is to use the Qualitative Map Combination (QMC) method to examine slope instability in Buncombe County. The resolution for the study will be at 10 meters since this allows a finer resolution and detailed image. The QMC method results will be compared with the results of a more comprehensive analysis completed by NCGS in order to evaluate validity of the QMC method application in western North Carolina.
5/29: Chris Schell (Assistant Professor, School of Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences, UW Tacoma)
Coyote movement in cities
6/5: Juan J. Cruz Motta (Professor, Department of Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico)
Development of quantitative models to implement an Ecosystem Based Fisheries Management (EBFM) approach in the Caribbean