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The expression of DNA can be changed not only by changing the sequence of DNA letters, but also through epigenetics, which involves heritable changes in gene expression, for example by adding methyl groups to parts of the DNA.
A new method for identifying species from their DNA expands on current “DNA barcoding” methods. In the current DNA barcoding methods, a particular promising section of DNA in the mitochondria of cells is sequenced, and differences in the DNA “letters” used to identify species with high accuracy: for instance, this method is more than 80% accurate for freshwater fish species in the Congo River basin.