Tuna fisheries supply nutrients, food, employment, and other economic benefits to coastal states and global industrial fleets. A new analysis now examines the causes for variability in economic performance among regions and management types through Fishery Performance Indicators, which score performance on 68 questions answered on a scale from 1 (worst) to 5 (best). Benefits were greatest for tuna caught for canning and for sashimi (raw fish) markets, since these were the highest quality fish, and had access to the most valuable markets; and success was largely determined by the post-harvest sector. Thus foundations and NGOs seeking to improve livelihoods of those living in coastal states will achieve the greatest economic benefit in these states by investing in infrastructure that enables tuna fishers to improve fish quality and access to markets. The new work was conducted by Jessica McCluney of McCluney Seafood Marketing Strategies, SAFS professor Chris Anderson, and James L. Anderson at the University of Florida, and is published in the journal Nature Communications.