Carolyn Friedman

  • Associate Professor, SAFS

Research areas

I’m a biologist who studies the impacts that diseases can have on wild and farmed marine organisms, especially oysters. My research is varied and leads me to collaborates with oceanographers, genome scientists, pathologists, and aquaculture industry scientists.

My laboratory focuses on the examination of infectious and non-infectious diseases of wild and cultured marine invertebrates. We are interested in the impacts of disease on animal health at the individual and population levels. At the individual level, we examine host response (gross to gene expression level) and develop and apply diagnostic tools (e.g., cPCR and qPCR) to detect pathogens and host responses. We also develop treatments for bacterial pathogens. The ecology of infectious diseases at the population level is examined via field and wet laboratory experiments in which the roles of variations in host (e.g., species or family), environment (e.g., temperature, salinity, pH), and pathogen are defined.

Another focus of our laboratory is the conservation of marine invertebrates, particularly abalone. We work with colleagues at universities and state and federal resource agencies to characterize trends in populations, recruitment, and larval survival/behavior. Our laboratory serves as the OIE Reference Laboratory for infection with “Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis.”

Our major projects currently are focused on:


Selected publications

  • 2014. Friedman, CS, Wight, N, Crosson, LM, VanBlaricom, GR, Lafferty, KD. Reduced disease in black abalone following mass mortality: phage therapy and natural selection. Front. Microbiol. Aquat. Microbiol. 5:78 (online). doi:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00078#sthash.eNDw19t5.dpuf.

  • 2014. Burge, CA, Eakin, CM, Friedman, CS, Froelich, B, Hershberger, PK, Hofmann, EE, Petes, LE, Prager, KC, Weil, E, Willis, BL, Ford, SE, Harvell, CD. Climate change influences on marine infectious diseases: implications for management and society. Annu. Rev. Marine. Sci. 6:249-277. doi:10.1146/annurev-marine-010213-135029.

  • 2013. Timmins-Schiffman, E, O’Donnell, MJ, Friedman, CS, Roberts, SB. Elevated pCO(2) causes developmental delay in early larval Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas. Mar Biol 160(8):1973-1982. doi:10.1007/s00227-012-2055-x

  • 2013. Kiryu, I, Kurita, J, Yuasa, K, Nishioka, T, Shimahara, Y, Kamaishi, T, Ototake, M, Oseko, N, Tange, N, Inoue, M, Yatabe, T, Friedman, CS. First detection of Candidatus XenohaliotisCaliforniensis, the causative agent of withering syndrome, in Japanese black abalone Haliotis discus discus in Japan. Fish Pathol 48(2):35-41. doi:10.3147/jsfp.48.35.

  • 2012. Vadopalas, B, Leclair, LL, Bentzen, P. Temproal genetic similarity among year-classes of the Pacific geoduck clam (Panopea Generosa Gould 1850): A sapecies exhibiting spatial patchiness. J Shellfish Res (31):697-709. doi:10.2983/035.031.0314.